About Us!

Welcome to our page! We do our best to provide to-be and current bunny owners up-to-date info on the best care for their house rabbits. When we adopted our first bunny in 2005, there was almost nothing on the internet to tell us how to care for him. Just in the past few years, information has exploded online, and now it can be confusing! We try to simplify it by posting weekly articles on current issues, daily care, concerns, proper feeding, and other info so you can enjoy your house-bun! If you are just finding us, feel free to look through the older posts also. Please email us if you have any questions! Happy bunnies make happy hearts!
Email: thebunnyhut101@yahoo.com

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Botfly in Rabbits (which is seen in the USA only)

Warning: this file contains pictures and videos that may be distressing for people.

Myiasis caused by larvae of the Cuterebra sp. flies is found only in the USA. It is most commonly observed during the hot humid summer months and during fall, and affects mainly younger animals. Cuterebra sp. flies are large, hairy, and characterized by the absence of a functional mouth. Their life span is short, and aimed only at the reproduction of the species. The larvae of several species of the flies can infest rabbits and other lagomorphs.  The parasitic larvae of these flies can infest human beings and other animals as well, including dogs, foxes, cats, and minks.

Unlike with fly-strike, a Cuterebra sp. larva strike is not linked to poor hygiene. Indeed, the eggs are not deposited on skin soiled with urine or excrement, but near the entrance to a rabbit burrow, other lagomorph nests, or near an outdoor rabbit hutch. 

House rabbits can also be struck by botfly larvae, when a fly enters a home, and deposits eggs in the rabbit's living environment. When the botfly larva emerges from the egg, it will migrate onto a (wild) rabbit, cottontail, or hare. It enters the body of its host through the skin (breaks in the skin or any natural openings), after which it penetrates the mucosa. The larva will migrate further in the body, using the trachea and the abdominal cavity to move to a subcutaneous location. There it will develop a 2 to 3 cm long furunculoid cystic structure, with a fistula (respiratory hole) at the surface of the skin, and swelling of the subcutaneous tissues.



Botfly Cuterebra sp. and maggot

Depending on the species of botfly, the cysts will develop in different parts of the rabbit's body. Larvae of C. buccata can infest the entire abdominal region (especially the inguinal area, abdomen or shoulders), whereas larvae of C. horripilum have mainly been observed in the cervical region.  When the larva reaches the stage of pupation, it disengages from the cyst and falls off.


Connie Andrews
Neck of a rabbit infested with a Cuterebra sp. larva
Connie Andrews                                                       www.bright.net/~bryanvet/Cuterebra.htm
Left: Close view of the respiratory hole
Right: Larva after surgical removal 

Clinical signs

The clinical signs are generally sufficient for a proper diagnosis.

The early stages of myiasis are sub-clinical. With time however, a rabbit becomes depressed, anorectic, dehydrated and weak, loses weight, and may go into shock if the infection is severe. At this stage the infection becomes discernible, with a visible fistula in the skin, accompanied by a lump or a cystic structure. The lesion is painful, and causes great distress to the rabbit.

Progressively the skin around the hole becomes moist, and the surrounding hair matted, leading to the development of secondary bacterial or fungal infections.


 Young wild cottontail in Shrewsbury, MA, USA, affected by a Cuterebra sp. maggot in the neck.

There is potential for aberrant migration of the larvae into the nasal cavity and sinuses, or the eyes. Migration into the trachea has also been observed, leading to the formation of laryngeal edema, blocking the air supply to the lungs, and sometimes accompanied by concurrent accumulation of mucus, and swelling of the esophagus. Migration into the brain, via the ear canal is a further potential danger. Once in the brain, it will cause severe and irreversible neurological damage.


The history of the rabbit and the clinical signs are generally sufficient for a proper diagnosis.



The skin is prepared as for a surgical procedure, with the hair delicately clipped around the infected area, and the skin disinfected with an antiseptic solution. After enlargement of the breathing hole, the larva is carefully removed with the aid of forceps, without damaging or crushing it, in order to prevent skin irritation, and especially in order to prevent the occurrence of a (fatal) anaphylactic reaction. After removal of the larvae the cavity is cleaned with a sterile saline solution, an antiseptic solution, and an insecticide solution.
If necrotic tissue is present, the cavity should be carefully debrided. If an abscess has formed in the cavity, surgical excision of the tissues is necessary, followed by topical and systemic antibiotic therapy.
Aberrant migrated larvae, located deep under the skin or in vital organs, are removed surgically, under anesthesia.
The administration of non-steroidal analgesics (pain medication) is necessary (e.g. meloxicam, carprofen) after the procedure. If the affected rabbit stops eating, it should be hand-fed, in order to avoid fatal hepatic lipidosis.
If a rabbit is heavily infested with botfly larvae, euthanasia should be considered.


 Footnote and Further reading:   


 Also see article on flystrike:

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Why Spay & Neuter? Bunny Post Operative Care

Why spay and neuter rabbits?

Flemmie Cupid

 Why spay and neuter rabbits?

  • Altered rabbits are healthier and live longer than unaltered rabbits. The risk of reproductive cancers (ovarian, uterine, mammarian) for an unspayed female rabbit stands at is virtually eliminated by spaying your female rabbit. Your neutered male rabbit will live longer as well, given that he won’t be tempted to fight with other animals (rabbits, cats, etc.) due to his sexual aggression. Rabbits are at risk by two years of age, and those risks increase greatly as they age, according to the House Rabbit Society.

  • Altered rabbits make better companions. They are calmer, more loving, and dependable once the undeniable urge to mate has been removed. In addition, rabbits are less prone to destructive (chewing, digging) and aggressive (biting, lunging, circling, growling) behavior after surgery.

  • Avoidance of obnoxious behavior. Unneutered male rabbits spray, and both males and females are much easier to litter train, and much more reliably trained, after they have been altered.
  • Altered rabbits won’t contribute to the problem of overpopulation of rabbits. Over 7 million adorable dogs, cats, and rabbits are killed in animal shelters in this country every year. In addition, unwanted rabbits are often abandoned in fields, parks, or on city streets to fend for themselves, where they suffer from starvation, sickness, and are easy prey to other animals or traffic accidents. Those rabbits who are sold to pet stores don’t necessarily fare any better, as pet stores sell pets to anyone with the money to buy, and don’t check on what kind of home they will go to. Many of these rabbits will be sold as snake food, or as a pet for a small child who will soon “outgrow” the rabbit.
  • Altered rabbits can safely have a friend to play with. Rabbits are social animals and enjoy the company of other rabbits. But unless your rabbit is altered, he or she cannot have a friend, either of the opposite sex, or the same sex, due to sexual and aggressive behaviors triggered by hormones.
  • Spaying and neutering for rabbits has become a safe procedure when performed by experienced rabbit veterinarians. The House Rabbit Society has had over 1000 rabbits spayed or neutered with approximately .1% mortality due to anesthesia. A knowledgeable rabbit veterinarian can spay or neuter your rabbit with very little risk to a healthy rabbit. Don’t allow a veterinarian with little or no experience with rabbits to spay or neuter your rabbit.

Is surgery safe on rabbits?

Surgery can be as safe on rabbits as on any animal. Unfortunately, the vast majority of veterinarians aren’t experienced with safe rabbit surgery techniques. Don’t allow a veterinarian with little or no experience with rabbits spay or neuter your rabbit. Using isofluorene or sevoflurane as the anesthetic and appropriate surgical and after-surgery techniques, spaying and neutering of rabbits is as safe as for any other animal.

At what age should rabbits be spayed or neutered?

Females can be spayed as soon as they sexually mature, usually around 4- 5 months of age, but many veterinarians prefer to wait until they are 6 months old, as surgery is riskier on a younger rabbit.
Males can be neutered as soon as the testicles descend, usually around 3-1/2 months of age.

When is a rabbit too old to be spayed or neutered?

Veterinarians will have their own opinions on this, but in general, after a rabbit is 6 years old, anesthetics and surgery become more risky, but that doesn’t mean it can’t be done. Simply consult your veterinarian regarding your rabbit’s health and circumstances, and opt for pre-surgical blood work.
It is always a good idea, in a rabbit over 2 years of age, to have a very thorough health check done, including full blood work. This may be more expensive than the surgery, but it will help detect any condition that could make the surgery more risky. This is especially important if anesthetics other than isofluorene or sevoflurane are used.

Can you tell if female rabbit has already been spayed?

The probability is very high that she hasn’t.
One can shave the tummy and look for a spay scar. However, when veterinarians use certain stitching techniques, there is no scar whatsoever. Hopefully, these veterinarians will tattoo the tummy to indicate the spay has been done, but otherwise, the only way of knowing is to proceed with the surgery.

What does the surgery cost?

Spay/neuter costs vary tremendously in different areas of the country. The low end of the range can be as inexpensive as $50-75 (often in spay/neuter clinics), while vets in major metropolitan areas, where rents and labor costs are very high, often charge several hundred dollars.

Remember, sometimes, you do get what you pay for in care. 
An exotic vet who 
1. Takes the time and pays attention to detail, 
2. Can resuscitate in an emergency, 
3. Feels more comfortable with having the bunny stay until he has eaten and poops before he leaves
                           Is worth the money!

How can I find a veterinarian that can do the surgery safely?

See our veterinary listings: http://rabbit.org/vet-listings/

What kinds of questions should I ask the vet?

  • about how many rabbit clients does the veterinarian see in a year?
  • how many spays/neuters OF RABBITS has the veterinarian has done in the past year?
  • what was the success rate? 90% success is way too low. Every doctor, whether for animals or humans will occasionally lose a patient; usually because of an undiagnosed problem. veterinarians across the country who spay and neuter rabbits for the House Rabbit Society have lost on average less than 1/2 of 1%.
  • if any were lost, what was the cause?
  • does the veterinarian remove both uterus and ovaries? (they should)
  • does the veterinarian do “open” or “closed” neuters? (closed is preferable–let your veterinarian explain the difference)
  • is entry to the testicles made through the scrotum or the abdomen? (Entry via the abdomen unnecessarily increases the trauma for male rabbits)
  • does the veterinarian require withholding of food and water prior to surgery in rabbits? (Do not do this–rabbits can’t vomit, so there is no risk of that during surgery, and rabbits should never be allowed to get empty digestive tracts)
  • what anesthetics are used–some veterinarians are quite successful with anesthetics other than isofluorene or sevoflurane, but the bunny is “hung over” after surgery, which increases the probability that s/he will be slow to start eating again, which can lead to serious problems if not dealt with.
  • Review the procedure (op and immediate post-op) with your vet. Ask how problems will be detected: how often will they (the veterinarian and the techs) look in on your rabbit and what will they look for?. What will they do pre-op to find any potential problems? How will they support your bun in the hours after surgery: Oxygen, warmth, quiet (barking dogs and yowling cats in the next cage are probably not helpful), and stimulation? What are they going to do to make it come out right?! Ask questions! That will get your veterinarian’s attention. Let them know you’re concerned and that you’ll be paying attention.

Isoflurane vs. Sevoflurane Anesthesia 
Article to just inform you about different types of anesthesias used and how with rabbits.


          What pre- and post-operative care should one give?

Some rabbit people give their rabbit acidophilus for a couple of days prior to surgery, just to be certain that the digestive system is functioning in fine form. But don’t change the diet it any way during this time.
After the surgery, ask your veterinarian for pain medication, especially for a spay. Medicam is very common.
If you choose, continue giving acidophilus until the appetite has returned to normal.
Inspect the incision morning and evening. After a neuter, the scrotum may swell with fluids. Warm compresses will help, but it is nothing to be overly concerned about. With any sign of infection, take the rabbit to the veterinarian immediately.
After surgery, keep the environment quiet so the rabbit doesn’t startle or panic, don’t do anything to encourage acrobatics, but let the rabbit move around at her own pace– she knows what hurts and what doesn’t.

Some veterinarians keep rabbits overnight. If your veterinarian lets you bring your bunny home the first night, note the following:
  • Most males come home after being neutered looking for “supper”– be sure they have pellets, water, and some good hay (good, fresh alfalfa is a good way to tempt them to nibble a bit)
  • Most females want to be left alone, are not interested in eating at all, and will sit quietly in a back corner of the cage (or wherever in the house they feel they will be bothered the least). Try not to pick up or bother her much for the first 4 days.  Females take it harder.
The following morning, or at latest by the next evening, it is important for the rabbit to be nibbling something. It doesn’t matter what or how much, as long as she is taking in something, so the digestive tract won’t shut down. If she isn’t, tempt her with everything possible, and as a last resort, make a mush of rabbit pellets (1 part pellets, 2 parts water, run through blender thoroughly, add acidophilus, and feed in pea-sized bits with a feeding syringe through the side of the mouth with them sitting upright).  But this should not be necessary if you give them their favorite Italian parlsey, a piece of banana, dandelion green, cold, fresh greens, washed, and you hold it for them. They should start nibbling on it.

Occasionally a female will pull out her stitches. Get her stitched up again, and then belly-band her by wrapping a dish towel around her whole middle and binding that with an elastic bandage wrapped snuggly over it. If she can breath normally, it isn’t too tight.

Our Exotic vet requires our bunnies to stay overnight after any surgeries. If your vet does not require this, please read this info before the surgery so you know how to care for your bun when you  bring him/her home. And ALWAYS keep the vets number handy if there is any type of emergency!

                           CARE FOR THE FIRST 24-48 HOURS

Looking after rabbits following surgery or an anesthetic requires a degree of extra care.  They have higher rates of metabolism than larger pets, such as cats or dogs, and so are susceptible to body heat loss, dehydration and a drop in blood sugar levels.

Rabbits as a prey species are also very prone to stress and will benefit from this being minimized whilst recovering.

These potential problems are more of a risk after surgery or an anesthetic, but can be minimized  with some specific care laid out below, but guidance will be given by your vet based on the specific procedure that your rabbit is recovering from.  The basics generally remain the same.
  •  Keep your pet in a quiet, warm environment overnight once you get home.  If your rabbit(s) are not normally unduly stressed, they can be brought indoors overnight and kept in an indoor rabbit cage/dog crate or if neither are available, a pet carrier
  • For the first few days the bedding should be of a dry, soft and absorbent material such as shredded tissue paper, soft meadow hay or Vet Bed.  Avoid bedding with fine particles such as shavings and sawdust (never recommended for rabbits) as they may irritate and contaminate any wounds
  •  Provide fresh water.
  • Provide food straight away. This should be their usual variety, with no special and unfamiliar treats as this may upset their digestion
  • Ensure that your rabbit(s) eat within 12-24 hours of coming home and monitor output of poos in that time.   Whilst your rabbit(s) may be quieter than normal for 24-48 hours, it is important to see evidence of eating, drinking and pooing.
  • .Rabbits should not be allowed to exercise overly for a few days to help their wounds repair e.g. not using a ramp in multiple floor housing, using a run, and not playing with exercise toys such as tunnels/stools/jump boxes/steps
  •  Rabbits (and/or their partners) can be inclined to lick and chew their wounds and stitches, so it is important to check them several times a day
  •  Already bonded (paired) rabbits should remain together throughout any visits to the vets And traveling to reduce stress, unless this is contra- indicated (e.g. risk of mating, inability to nurse with partner rabbit in situ., risk to partner rabbits health)
  • Complete any course of medication prescribed to you to give your pet
  •  If you are concerned about your rabbit(s) recovery for any reason, please telephone your vet immediately
 It is important that rabbits do eat as soon as possible after any procedure and that their gut keeps working normally.  In order to help this happen the vet will normally give some particular drugs/treatments prior to your rabbit leaving the surgery to come home.  These would normally include :

24 hour pain relief
gut stimulant
syringe food

Your rabbit will normally be back to normal in a few days, and should have a followup consultation with your vet to ensure that he or she is happy with progress.

Please note following neutering, both mature males and mature females can remain hormonal for between 4-6 weeks and that males are still capable of breeding for up to 6 weeks post op. 



Footnotes and further reading;

Sevoflurane or isoflurane anaesthesia in rabbits:


Sunday, May 22, 2016

Upper Respiratory Issues in Rabbits

Till recently, respiratory diseases in rabbits have been connected to the presence of the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, therefore the disease was called Pasteurellosis. This diagnosis is definitively outdated, after cultures of samples taken from diseased rabbits revealed the presence of a variety of bacteria: Bordetella bronchiseptica, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Chlamydia sp., Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma sp., etc.
Non-bacterial causes can also lead to respiratory diseases in rabbits:
1.  Viral, due to poxvirus, Myxoma virus (see: Myxomatosis), or Herpesvirus (see: http://www.medirabbit.com/EN/Skin_diseases/Viral_diseases/Herp/Herpes_en.htm);
2  Mechanical or neoplastic obstruction, due to the presence of a piece of hay, or tumor (polyp, malignant tumor), respectively; of cardiovascular origin;
3.  Hypersensitivity (e.g. ammonia vapors from the litter-box, cigarette smoke, hay  or pellet dust, pollen). Allergic reactions are rare in rabbits;      
4.     Presence of a foreign body.

Kim Chilson

Rune, and the piece of hay that came out of the nostril.

Respiratory disease can be divided into:

1.  Upper respiratory tract disease, which is characterized by nasal and ocular discharge, sneezing and snoring, rarely fever;

2. Lower respiratory tract disease, which is characterized by anorexia, depression, dyspnea (abnormal or difficult breathing) and cyanosis (blue discoloration of tongue, lips, gums, due to shortage of oxygen), fever or hypothermia. Lower respiratory tract disease can remain undetected for a long time, till the disease develops in an acute form, with difficult respiration and sometimes coughing. When respiration is difficult, it can be accompanied by bilateral bulging of the eyes and excessive appearance of the nictitating eyelid (also called third eyelid).

For causes of respiratory disease in rabbits, see: "Differential diagnosis for difficult or noisy respiration



Rabbit with severe respiratory distress and mouth breathing as well as conjunctivitis.

Clinical examination

The following points should be checked, when a respiratory disease is suspected:
1.     Checking the rate of respiration of the rabbit (30 to 60/min). Higher is normal, lower is abnormal.
2.     Checking carefully the nostrils for discharge. This is not always obvious, as rabbits are big groomers and will clean themselves restlessly. Sometimes matted fur can be found on the front paw, sign that a discharge has occurred.
3.     Examining the eyes for conjunctivitis and dacryocystitis (excretion of purulent exudate or lachrymal overflow).
4.     Checking the face, the facial bones, to discover irregularities, presence of abscess, swellings.
5.     Rhinoscopy.
6.     Taking deep nasal and tracheal samples in order to do a bacterial culture; for the nostrils, it should be done on both sides as the infection can be unilateral. The nostril swab can be done with a flexible-wire calcium alginate tipped swab, 1 to 4 cm into the nostrils or the nasopharyngeal region. An alternative method is a nasal aspiration.
Nasal swab (bottom) and holder(top)
Kliniek voor Pluimvee en Bijzondere Dieren, Universiteit Gent

Septicemia causes by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida

 7.     Examining the ears for infection. X-ray pictures of the skull may show the presence of an increased opacity in the middle and external ear. Ear infection is often associated to respiratory infection, via the passage of bacteria through the Eustachian tube, but it is not an obligation. Often, the rabbit has a decreased appetite, due to pain.
8.     Microscopical examination of the blood and CBC in order to reveal hematological changes like neutrophilia (increased level of neutrophils), or leucopenia (decrease in the amount of white blood cells in the blood). It may furthermore help detect secondary organ failure.
9.     When a heart problem is suspected, X-rays and electrocardiography will help to detect cardiomegaly (enlargement of the heart).

10.    X-rays of the thorax will further help detect the presence of a bacterial infection (increased opacity), bronchitis, the presence of masses (abscess or neoplasia), or edema (accumulation of an abnormally large amount of fluid) around the lung(s) or the heart.

Infectious bacteria

Pasteurella multocida is quite contagious, although some rabbits seem to show a higher resistance to the bacterium than others. If Pasteurella sp. is present, treatment must be started ASAP, be aggressive and long, at least two weeks after total disappearance of the symptoms. It happens that a rabbit never fully recovers and need to be on maintenance antibiotics for the rest of its life.
Pasteurella sp. is responsible for more than one difficult to treat disease in rabbits, to name a few:
-       pleuritis (inflammation of the tissue around the lungs);
-       pneumonia;
-       pericarditis (inflammation of the lining around the heart);
-       otitis media or interna (middle or inner ear infection);
-       dacryocystitis (infection of the tear duct),
-       conjunctivitis;,
-       subcutaneous abscesses;
-       mastitis (infection of the milk glands).
The clinical signs are multiple, including sneezing and coughing, and nasal discharge.
Kim Chilson

Sneezing rabbit

This stage can evolve into lower respiratory tract disease, with pleuro-pneumonia or pericarditis.
Bordetella bronchiseptica is typically a bacterium that shows up, when a rabbit and a guinea pig are housed together. It may be present asymptomatically in the nasal cavity of the rabbit, without development of the disease. Its presence may increase the susceptibility of the rabbit to Pasteurella sp. and the chances of developing an infection, including bronchopneumonia. The bacterium is fatal for the guinea pig.

Acinetobacter sp. is a bacterium that has usually a low potential of virulence and thus rarely leads to the development of pneumonia. Its presence tends to indicate that an animal is colonized by this bacterium, rather than infected. Since it is colonizing mainly, it is important to determine if Acinetobacter sp. is the causative agent, or merely masking the presence of another pathogen.

Michel Gruaz
Jonathan Cracknell BVMS CertVA CertZooMed MRCVS
Further typical clinical signs related to a Pasteurella sp infection: head-tilt (top) caused by middle or inner ear infection, which should be differentiate from encephalitozoonosis; conjunctivitis (bottom left); and unilateral eye bulging caused by the presence of a retrobulbar abscess (bottom right).



Respiratory tract diseases must be differentiated from a viral disease, a mechanical or neoplastic obstruction or hypersensitivity. If nothing is found and the presence of bacteria can be ruled out, the affected rabbit can be given antihistamines or corticosteroids (no longer than 3 to 5 days). 
Successful treatment of upper respiratory infection needs to be aggressive and long. Often a combination of antibiotics is used, like oral administration of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin, accompanied by gentamycin based nose drops.
Trimethoprim sulfadiazine is a bactericidal antibiotic used in GI tract, respiratory and urinary infections, among others. It is efficacious against a range of bacteria that affect rabbits, including Pasteurella sp., Clostridia spp., Staphylococcus sp., Bordetella sp., etc. It can be used long term, low dose. This antibiotic often shows poor results in rabbits, and often the disease comes back worse once the treatment is stopped. This could relate to the fact that half-life of trimethoprim in a rabbit last only 40 min.
Azythromycin, a modified erythromycin, that does not show the side effects of the later in rabbits, is very efficacious in the treatment of Bordetella sp. (and so is enrofloxacin). The azythromycin doses used for rabbits (50mg/kg PO QD (SID) is much higher than that used for other small animals like cats and dogs (5-8mg/kg). Treatment lasts generally 7 days, after which an evaluation is done and eventual prolongation decided.
Cephalosporins are bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotics used to treat skeletal, genital/urinary, skin and soft tissue bacterial and respiratory (associated with Pasteurella sp.) infections, among others. There are several generations of cephalosporin, each aiming a more or less specific group of bacteria. Although quite safe when used in injected form, this drug is potentially nephrotoxic.
The therapy against Pseudomonas sp., one of the most difficult to treat infections, must be aggressive. A sensitivity test must be done, as this bacterium is known to be multiresistant to many antibiotics.  
Most successful treatments involve a combination of antibiotics, for example:
  • Enrofloxacin + nasal drops of gentamycin;
  • Enrofloxacin + nebulization of amikacin (if located in the upper respiratory enrofloxacin + doxycycline;
  • Cephalosporin/tobramycin (both should be use in injected form only);
  • Azithromycin is NOT effective against Pseudomonas sp.;

Further antibiotics, safe for use in rabbits that have shown good results in the treatment of respiratory tract disease, include:
  • Amikacin, injected subcutaneously or nebulization, is used to treat Gram-negative bacteria,
  • Enrofloxacin (if injected, it can lead to the development of sterile abscesses. This can be avoided by diluting the solution with a sterile saline solution, 50:50),
  • Chloramphenicol (exceptionally leads to a decreased appetite),
  • Gentamycin, injected, drops, or nebulization, used to treat Gram-negative bacteria.

For more information, see: Antibiotics *safe*  for use in rabbits: http://www.medirabbit.com/Safe_medication/Antibiotics/Safe_antibiotics.htm


Aside a longer systemic antibiotic therapy, additional therapy comprises:
·           Nasolacrimal flushes;
·           Nebulization with a saline solution, mucolytics and antibiotics help bring the medication deep in the bronchia and lungs in cases of rhinitis, sinusitis or pneumonia;
·           Fluid therapy and assisted force-feeding, when the rabbit refuses to drink and eat.
If the respiratory disease is accompanied by conjunctivitis and/or dacryocystitis, local antibiotic therapy (e.g. enrofloxacin, gentamycin) must accompany the treatment protocol.

A. van Praag
Flora hold above a bowl of hot water to allow her to breath humid air. 

 Video's about nebulization

Footnote and further information: